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趣味阅读:海豹为什么喜欢和别人分享晚餐?
发布日期:2019-11-15
趣味阅读:海豹为什么喜欢和别人分享晚餐?
Leopard seals share their suppers
Bad news if you are a penguin
 
LEOPARD SEALS resemble their terrestrial(地球上的,陆地上的) namesakes(同名物) in two ways. They have polka-dot pelts. And they are powerful, generally solitary(孤独的,隐士) carnivores that are quite capable of killing a human being if they so choose—as has indeed happened once, in 2003, when a British marine biologist was the victim.
Curiously, though, there have also been reports of leopard seals behaving in a friendly manner towards people—apparently trying to present gifts, in the form of prey, to divers. Until now, there has been no explanation for this philanthropy(慈善事业).
But work just published in Polar Biology by James Robbins of Plymouth University, in Britain, suggests that what the seals are actually looking for(寻找) is a dining partner. Mr Robbins and his team were studying leopard seals in the waters around South Georgia, an island in the Southern Ocean 1,500km from the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Instead of diving, or watching from ships, they used drones to carry out their observations. These drones recorded hitherto(迄今为止) unobserved behavior on the part of the animals. First, belying their solitary reputation, the seals came together in groups to attack king penguins (twice the size of the gentoo penguin in the photograph) that were entering the sea from a rookery(栖息地) on the island.
Second, when a seal did catch a penguin in these circumstances, it would sometimes offer to share it with a neighbor in a way reminiscent of(让人联想起) divers’ tales of gift giving. What looked like an aberration(畸变) might thus be a normal way of behaving. But why?
Mr Robbins’s suggestion is that sharing a penguin with a neighbor makes it easier to eat. A close look at footage the drones recorded shows that seals in such partnerships take it in turns to feed. One holds the bird tight in its jaws while the other rips off a chunk of flesh and swallows it.Then they swap roles. By contrast, for a lone seal to reduce a penguin to bite-sized chunks means whipping the prey around in its jaws with as much force as it can muster, in order to tear lumps of flesh free from the carcass. This commonly happens, but is thought to be extremely tiring. Better, therefore, to find a buddy(伙伴) and enjoy a meal together.
  1. What of the following is not the similarity between leopard seals and leopards?
  1. They both have polka-dot pelts.
  2. They both live independently.
  3. They are both able to kill a human being if they want.
  4. They both share their food with a partner.
  1. How did James Robbins and his partner study the behavior of leopard seals?
  1. By diving into the water to watch            B. by watching from ships
C.  By using drones to observe               D. by recording their behavior using camera
3.  What can we infer from the passage?
A.  The drones recorded that the leopard seals came together to attack king penguins.
B.   Leopard seals share a penguin with a neighbor to make it easier to eat.
C.   More study need to be done as to why Leopard seals share food with their neighbors.
D.   Leopard seals share food as a gift with their neighbours.
4.   What could be the best title of this passage?
  A. Leopard seals share their suppers --- for what?
 B. A New Study on Leopard Seals
 C. Leopard Seals find it Hard to Eat by Itself
D. Scientist Carry out New Study on Leopard Seals
 

 
 
 
海豹喜欢共享自己的晚餐
海豹与陆地上的同名动物(豹)有两个相似之处。它们的毛皮上都有圆点花纹。而且都是强大的独居肉食动物。如果它们想的话,完全有能力杀人——就像2003年发生的那起事件,一名英国海洋生物学家成为当时的受害者。
但是值得奇怪的是,有一些报道称这些海豹对人类其实很友好——友好得相当明显,因为它们正在向潜水员赠送自己的猎物。到目前为止,人们对海豹的这种慈善行为还没有任何解释。
但是,英国普利茅斯大学的詹姆斯·罗宾斯在《极地生物学》上发表的研究表明,海豹实际上是在寻找一个吃饭的伙伴。罗宾斯先生和他的团队正在南乔治亚岛附近海域研究海豹。南乔治亚岛位于南大洋,距南极半岛顶端1500公里。
他们不是通过潜水,更不是在船上观察,而是使用无人机观测。这些无人机记录了这些动物迄今为止尚未被观察到的行为。首先,海豹为了掩饰自己独行侠的名声,总是成群结队地攻击从海岛栖息地进入大海的帝企鹅(比照片中的巴布亚企鹅大两倍以上)
其次,当海豹在这种情况下捕捉到企鹅时,它有时会主动提出与同伴分享,这让人想起向潜水员送礼的故事。因此,这种看似异常的行为也能当作一种正常的行为方式被理解。但为什么呢?
罗宾斯先生的想法是,与同伴分享一只企鹅会让吃东西变得更方便。根据无人机记录的视频中仔细观察发现,海豹会和同伴轮流进食。一只海豹负责咬住企鹅的嘴,而另一只则撕下大块的肉吞了下去。随后他们互换角色。相比之下,对于一只孤独的海豹而言,把一只企鹅咬成一口大小的肉块,就意味着要使出浑身解数把猎物放在嘴里猛烈撕咬,才能把肉块从尸体上撕扯下来。尽管这种现象在动物界很普遍,但这的确太累人了。所以,最好的办法就是找个好朋友共享这顿大餐。
 
【拓展理解】
University of Plymouth
普利茅斯大学,勋衔Plym,世界300强大学,英国老牌名校,英联邦大学协会成员,欧洲大学联盟成员,英国大学联盟成员,江苏—英国高水平大学20+20中英大学联盟成员 。始建于1862年,主校区坐落于英格兰普利茅斯(五月花号启航地)。
2019年CWTS莱顿世界大学排名英国第28位,世界第122位;2015年泰晤士高等教育世界大学排名第275位,世界第37位的年轻大学;2019年ARWU世界一流学科排名中,船舶与海洋工程专业位列世界第8位,海洋科学位列世界第46位。
普利茅斯大学赢得了两次高等教育女王年度大奖,拥有四个卓越教学研究中心以及23位英国高等教育学院院士 。大学被英国皇家学会选为其统计教育中心的所在地,亦拥有全英最先进的海洋创新中心。
 

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